# Optics and Optoelectronics

**Coordinated by:** Department of Chemical Physics and Optics

**Study branch coordinator:** prof. RNDr. Petr Malý, DrSc.

This programme is offered to students who want to gain a broader physical perspective and detailed knowledge as well as the practical skills needed for scientific and research activities in the field of optics and optolelectronics. The course prepares students for both independent creative activity and teamwork. The broader overview obtained also serves as preparation for work in interdisciplinary areas at the interface between physics, biology and technical fields. Emphasis is placed on high professionalism in optics and optoelectronics supported by a sound knowledge of computer technology. The student chooses one of two specializations according to his/her interest and the topic of his/her master's thesis. The specialization `Quantum and nonlinear optics' focuses mainly on the properties of optical fields within classical and quantum optics, on nonlinear optical phenomena and on methods of laser spectroscopy. The specialization `Optoelectronics and photonics' deals in detail with the interaction of light with solids, with light detection, and with semiconductor technology for optoelectronics and photonics applications. Part of the study plan in both specializations are practicals, conducted in laboratories with world-class facilities, which ensure the competencies of graduates in the field of experimental research, optical spectroscopy, applied optics, optoelectronics and spintronics. Elective courses cover emerging fields such as opto-spintronics, physics for metamaterials and terahertz spectroscopy. The extension of optics into a number of fields (physics, biology, chemistry, and medicine) and its ever-increasing application in everyday life increase the adaptability of graduates and the possibilities for them to continue in scientific research or practice. Graduates are fully prepared for further doctoral studies in the Czech Republic and abroad.

**Profile of graduates and study aims:**

The graduate has deep theoretical and experimental knowledge of classical and quantum optics and optoelectronics, and is proficient in mathematical modelling of physical processes in optics and optoelectronics. He/she is able to apply this knowledge and these skills in research and scientific activities in the fields of optics, optoelectronics, spintronics, photonics, laser physics, statistical and coherence optics, nonlinear optics, optical communication and information processing, instrumental optics, and in many fields where optics or optical spectroscopy is used (biology, chemistry, medicine). An advanced education in physics combined with the acquisition of skills in the field of computer programming, information technology and the organization of team scientific work increases the possibilities of employment at universities and scientific institutes as well as in industry. The graduate is able to communicate professionally in English and has experience with the preparation and design of grant projects and the organization of scientific work. He/she is ready for further doctoral studies or scientific and pedagogical activities at universities and scientific institutes in the Czech Republic and abroad. Graduates can also be employed as research and development workers or managers in private companies and institutions.

#### 4.1 Recommended Course of Study

Prerequisite for this study programme is a bachelor-level knowledge of wave optics and the fundamentals of optical spectroscopy.

#### Compulsory and elective courses

The student chooses one of two specializations: Quantum and nonlinear optics, Optoelectronics and photonics. Due to the different requirements for the oral part of the final state examination, it is recommended to choose courses of the profiling basis within the elective courses as follows: for the specialization Quantum and Nonlinear Optics, the courses Quantum Optics I, Quantum Optics II, Integrated and fibre optics; and for the specialization Optoelectronics and photonics, the courses Physics of Semiconductors for optoelectronics II, Physics of Semiconductors for optoelectronics III, Electron transport in Quantum Systems.*First year *

Code | Subject | Credits | Winter | Summer | |

NOOE002 | Semiconductor Physics for Optoelectronics I | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE003 | Materials and Technology in Optoelectronics | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE046 | Special Practical Course in Optics and Optoelectronics I | 6 | 0/4 MC | — | |

NFPL182 | Solid State Theory | 9 | 4/2 C+Ex | — | |

NOOE027 | Introduction to Quantum and Nonlinear Optics I | 6 | 3/1 C+Ex | — | |

NSZZ023 | Diploma Thesis I | 6 | — | 0/4 C | |

NOOE016 | Special Practical Course in Optics and Optoelectronics II | 6 | — | 0/4 MC | |

NOOE072 | Theory of spatial symmetry in systems for optics | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE028 | Introduction to Quantum and Nonlinear Optics II | 6 | — | 3/1 C+Ex | |

NBCM067 | Quantum Optics I | ^{1} | 5 | 2/1 C+Ex | — |

NBCM093 | Quantum Optics II | ^{1} | 5 | — | 2/1 C+Ex |

NBCM096 | Electron Transport in Quantum Systems | ^{2} | 5 | — | 2/1 C+Ex |

NOOE008 | Semiconductor Physics for Optoelectronics II | ^{2} | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex |

^{1} Recommended for specialization Quantum and Nonlinear Optics.

^{2} Recommended for specialization Optoelectronics and Photonics.

*Second year *

Code | Subject | Credits | Winter | Summer | |

NSZZ024 | Diploma Thesis II | 9 | 0/6 C | — | |

NOOE061 | Nonlinear Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures | 5 | 2/1 C+Ex | — | |

NSZZ025 | Diploma Thesis III | 15 | — | 0/10 C | |

NOOE005 | Semiconductor Physics for Optoelectronics III | ^{2} | 5 | 2/1 C+Ex | — |

NOOE007 | Integrated and Fibre Optics | ^{1} | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — |

NOOE034 | Laser Theory | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE026 | Ultrashort Laser Pulses | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE033 | Special Seminar on Quantum and Nonlinear Optics | ^{1} | 3 | 0/2 C | 0/2 C |

NOOE010 | Special Seminar on Optoelectronics | ^{2} | 3 | 0/2 C | 0/2 C |

^{1} Recommended for specialization Quantum and Nonlinear Optics.

^{2} Recommended for specialization Optoelectronics and Photonics.

#### 4.2 Obligatory Courses

Code | Subject | Credits | Winter | Summer | |

NOOE002 | Semiconductor Physics for Optoelectronics I | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE003 | Materials and Technology in Optoelectronics | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE046 | Special Practical Course in Optics and Optoelectronics I | 6 | 0/4 MC | — | |

NFPL182 | Solid State Theory | 9 | 4/2 C+Ex | — | |

NOOE027 | Introduction to Quantum and Nonlinear Optics I | 6 | 3/1 C+Ex | — | |

NSZZ023 | Diploma Thesis I | 6 | — | 0/4 C | |

NOOE016 | Special Practical Course in Optics and Optoelectronics II | 6 | — | 0/4 MC | |

NOOE072 | Theory of spatial symmetry in systems for optics | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE028 | Introduction to Quantum and Nonlinear Optics II | 6 | — | 3/1 C+Ex | |

NSZZ024 | Diploma Thesis II | 9 | 0/6 C | — | |

NOOE061 | Nonlinear Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures | 5 | 2/1 C+Ex | — | |

NSZZ025 | Diploma Thesis III | 15 | — | 0/10 C |

#### 4.3 Elective Courses

The student needs to obtain at least 31 credits for courses from the following set.Code | Subject | Credits | Winter | Summer | |

NBCM067 | Quantum Optics I | 5 | 2/1 C+Ex | — | |

NBCM096 | Electron Transport in Quantum Systems | 5 | — | 2/1 C+Ex | |

NOOE008 | Semiconductor Physics for Optoelectronics II | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NBCM093 | Quantum Optics II | 5 | — | 2/1 C+Ex | |

NOOE005 | Semiconductor Physics for Optoelectronics III | 5 | 2/1 C+Ex | — | |

NOOE007 | Integrated and Fibre Optics | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE034 | Laser Theory | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE026 | Ultrashort Laser Pulses | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE033 | Special Seminar on Quantum and Nonlinear Optics | 3 | 0/2 C | 0/2 C | |

NOOE010 | Special Seminar on Optoelectronics | 3 | 0/2 C | 0/2 C | |

NOOE035 | Luminescence Spectroscopy of Semiconductors | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE029 | Microcavities | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE127 | Nanooptics | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE123 | Optics of periodic structures for photonics | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE120 | Optical Spectroscopy in Spintronics | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE025 | Ultrafast laser spectroscopy | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — |

#### 4.4 Recommended Optional Courses

Code | Subject | Credits | Winter | Summer | |

NBCM101 | Detection and Spectroscopy of Single Molecules | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE124 | Photonic structures and electromagnetic metamaterials | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE047 | Integrated Optics | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE113 | Laser Metrology | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NFPL004 | Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NBCM305 | Optical Sensors | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE074 | Magneto-optics theory | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE133 | Topological properties of light and matter | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NBCM102 | Fundamentals of Classical Radiometry and Photometry | 3 | 2/0 Ex | — | |

NOOE048 | Fundamentals of Design and Production of Optical Components | 1 | 0/1 C | — | |

NOOE119 | Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE011 | Optics of Thin Films and Multilayers | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE130 | X-Ray Lasers and X-Ray Optics | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE015 | Seminar | 2 | — | 0/1 C | |

NOOE125 | Spectroscopy in the terahertz spectral range | 3 | — | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE073 | Contemporary Microscopy | 3 | 2/0 Ex | 2/0 Ex | |

NOOE126 | Seminar of Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy | 2 | 0/2 C | 0/2 C | |

NBCM323 | Seminar on open quantum system theory | 1 | 0/1 C | 0/1 C |

#### 4.5 State Final Exam

*Conditions that must be satisfied to register for the state final exam*

**–**earning at least 120 credits during the course of study**–**passing all compulsory courses**–**earning at least 31 credits from elective courses**–**submission of a completed master’s thesis by the submission deadline

*Requirements for the oral part of the state final exam*

Note: The student is asked two questions from part A and one question from part B in accord with the student's specialization.

*A Common requirements*

**1 Advanced quantum mechanics, quantum theory of solid state**

Role of symmetry in physics, eigenstates and their degeneration. Selection rules of physical processes in atoms, molecules and solids. Problem of many particles in quantum theory. Atoms and molecules. Electronic and vibration properties of solids. Second quantization. Quantization of electromagnetic field. Interaction of atom with electromagnetic radiation. Basics of relativistic quantum theory of electron. Single-electron approximation in solid state quantum theory, Bloch´s theorem, Brillouin zones. Influence of translation symmetry breaking, Wannier´s theorem, superlattices and quantum structures. Thermodynamics and statistical physics of elementary excitations. Electron transport in electric and magnetic fields. Dielectric properties of solids. Quasiparticles in solids.

**2 Wave optics, basics of quantum and nonlinear optics**

Light as electromagnetic waves. Polarization of light, its mathematical description. Optical constants, Kramers-Kroning relations. Phenomena on interface between media. Light waves in absorbing medium. Complex representation of light waves. Wave theory of optical coherence. Scalar diffraction theory. Fourier optics and holography. Gaussian beams, other types of light beams. Optical resonators. Propagation of light in waveguides, optical fibres. Light-matter interaction, classical and semi classical theory. Dynamical properties of laser. Laser types. Linear and nonlinear optics. Nonlinear phenomena of the second order. Nonlinear phenomena of the third order. Spontaneous and stimulated scattering. Nonstationary coherent phenomena.

**3 Basics of physics and technology of semiconductors for optoelectronics**

Semiconductor materials and their parameters. Phase equilibria. Crystal growth. Crystal defects. Impurities in crystals. Passivation and metallization of surfaces. Preparation of single crystals and thin films. Electrons, holes, band structure of bulk semiconductors. Drift, diffusion, generation, recombination, capture and tunnelling of charge carriers. Low-dimensional semiconductor structures. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductors and their nanostructures.

**4 Experimental methods**

Methods for measuring the properties of optical radiation. Measurement of light beam parameters. Sources and detectors of optical radiation. Spectroscopic instruments. Methods for measuring the optical constants of materials. Spectroscopic methods for investigating materials according to the type of interaction. Basic experiments of classical and quantum optics.

*B Specializations*

#### Quantum and Nonlinear Optics

**1 Quantum Optics**

Electromagnetic field quantization. Photon, coherent and thermal states of field. Interaction of light with matter. Spontaneous, stimulated emission and absorption. Lifetime, shape of spectral line. Interaction of an atom with coherent light. Bloch's equations. Reduced density matrix. Relaxation in open systems, master equation, stochastic quantum dynamics. Kubo's response theory. Field correlation of the first and second order, Mach-Zender and a Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometers. Beam splitters. Multimode light. Continuous frequency and time representation. Photon echo. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Entangled states. Quantum cryptography and teleportation. Methods of quantum description of laser, rate equations. Fluctuations in quantum systems, laser stability, output field statistics. Quantum description of nonlinear optical processes.

**2 Integrated and quantum optics**

Optics of interfaces, thin films and multilayers. Matrix description of light propagation in layered structures. Periodic structures. Fundamentals of photonic crystal theory. Silicon photonics. Photonic band structure. Microcavities. Methods for characterization of waveguide structures. Fundamentals of technology for integrated optics. Passive structures and dynamic components of integrated optics. Optical wave propagation in waveguides, modes. Characteristics of waveguides. Coupling elements for optical waveguides. Cylindrical dielectric waveguide. Single-mode and multimode optical fibres. Application of structures of integrated photonics in optical communication, information technology and sensors.

**3 Methods of optical spectroscopy**

Optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Luminescence spectroscopy of semiconductors. Study of properties of electrons, excitons, photons, impurity states. Strong excitation effects. Stimulated emission in semiconductors and their nanostructures. Ways of generation and detection of spin-polarized charge carriers. Optical spectroscopy methods for the study of spin-polarized carriers in semiconductors. Properties of ultrashort laser pulses and their propagation. Methods of ultrafast spectroscopy.

#### Optoelectronics and photonics

**1 Semiconductor physics for optoelectronics**

Methods of excitation of charge carriers in semiconductors. Recombination of charge carriers in semiconductors. Radiative and non-radiative transitions. Hot carriers, relaxation. Photoconductivity by inhomogeneous excitation. Surface states, surface conductivity and recombination. P-N transition and its characteristics. Schottky contact, basic approaches to charge transport. Structure MIS. Heterogeneous transitions. Low-dimensional semiconductor structures, electronic states in quantum lattices, wires and dots. Photovoltaic phenomena, irradiated P-N junction, irradiated Schottky contact.

**2 Optical and transport properties of semiconductors and their nanostructures**

Dispersion relations and general properties of optical constants. Kramers-Kronig relations. Quantum theory of optical transitions. Interband transitions. Allowed and forbidden, direct and indirect transitions. Impurity absorption. Reflection in the area of lattice oscillations. Non-perturbative description of interactions in the crystal, quasiparticles (phonon, plasmon, exciton, polariton). Free electron model. Plasma edge. Interband recombination. Stimulated emission. Low-dimensional semiconductor structures, their optical properties, magnetotransport and resonant tunnelling. Classical, semi classical and quantum-mechanical description of electron transport. Aharon-Bohm effect. Resonant tunneling and Coulomb blockade. Quantum Hall effect. Spintronics.

**3 Optoelectronic and photonic elements**

Semiconductor sources of optical radiation. Electroluminescent layers, light emitting diodes. Semiconductor lasers. Quantum cascade lasers. Semiconductor detectors, factors affecting detectivity. Photoresistors, photodiodes, avalanche photodiodes, phototransistors. Semiconductor sensors. Vidicon, charge-coupled device. Photovoltaic cells. Structures of integrated optics. Microresonators, silicon photonics. Photonic mirrors, waveguides, fibres, resonators, optical filters, elements based on negative index of refraction. Plasmonic structures.